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【名稱】


《世界人權宣言》

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

【發布單位】聯合國大會
【發布日期】一九四八年十二月十日通過
 
【序言】
  鑑於對人類家庭所有成員的固有尊嚴及其平等的和不移的權利的承認, 乃是世界自由、正義及和平的基礎,
  鑑於對人權的忽視及侮蔑已發展為野蠻暴行, 這些暴行玷污了人類的良心, 而一個人人享有言論和信仰自由並免於恐懼和匱乏的世界的來臨, 已被宣布為普通人民的最高願望,
  鑑於為使人類不致迫不得已鋌而走險, 對暴政和壓迫進行反抗, 有必要使人權受法治的保護,
  鑑於有必要促進各國間友好關係的發展,
  鑑於聯合國國家的人民已在聯合國憲章中重申他們對基本人權、人格尊嚴和價值以及男女平等權利的信心, 並決心促成較大自由中的社會進步和生活水平的改善,
  鑑於各會員國都已誓願同聯合國合作, 以促進對人權和基本自由的普遍尊重和遵行,
  鑑於對這些權利和自由的普遍瞭解, 對於這個誓願的充分實現, 有很大的重要性,
  因此, 現在,
  大會
【Preamble】
  Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
  Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,
  Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,
  Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,
  Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
  Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in cooperation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,
  Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,
  Now, therefore,
  The General Assembly,
【宣告】
  這一世界人權宣言, 作為所有人民和所有國家努力實現的共同標準, 以期每一個人和社會機構經常銘念本宣言, 努力通過教誨和教育, 促進對權利和自由的尊重, 並通過國家的和國際的漸進措施, 使這些權利和自由在各會員國本身人民及在其管轄下領土的人民中, 得到普遍和有效的承認和遵行。
【Proclaims】
  THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

【內容】

第1條


  人皆生而自由;在尊嚴及權利上均各平等。人各賦有理性良知,誠應和睦相處,情同手足。

Article 1


  All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

第2條


  人人皆得享受本宣言所載之一切權利與自由,不分種族、膚色、性別、語言、宗教、政見或他種主張、國籍或門第、財產、出生或他種身分。且不得因一人所隸國家或地區之政治、行政或國際地位之不同而有所區別,無論該地區係獨立、託管、非自治或受有其他主權上之限制。

Article 2


  Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

第3條


  人人有權享有生命、自由與人身安全。

Article 3.


  Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

第4條


  任何人不容使為奴役;奴隸制度及奴隸販賣,不論出於何種方式,悉應予以禁止。

Article 4.


  No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

第5條


  任何人不容加以酷刑,或施以殘忍不人道或侮慢之待遇或處罰。

Article 5.


  No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

第6條


  人人於任何所在有被承認為法律上主體之權利。

Article 6.


  Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

第7條


  人人在法律上悉屬平等,且應一體享受法律之平等保護。人人有權享受平等保護,以防止違反本宣言之任何歧視及煽動此種歧視之任何行為。

Article 7.


  All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.

第8條


  人人於其憲法或法律所賦予之基本權利被侵害時,有權享受國家管轄法庭之有效救濟。

Article 8.


  Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.

第9條


  任何人不容加以無理逮捕、拘禁或放逐。

Article 9.


  No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.

第10條


  人人於其權利與義務受判定時及被刑事控告時,有權享受獨立無私之法庭之絕對平等不偏且公開之聽審。

Article 10.


  Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.

第11條


  一、凡受刑事控告者,在未經依法公開審判證實有罪前,應視為無罪,審判時並須予以答辯上所需之一切保障。
  二、任何人在刑事上之行為或不行為,於其發生時依國家或國際法律均不構成罪行者,應不為罪。刑罰不得重於犯罪時法律之規定。

Article 11.


  (1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.
  (2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.

第12條


  任何個人之私生活、家庭、住所或通訊不容無理侵犯,其榮譽及信用亦不容侵害。人人為防止此種侵犯或侵害有權受法律保護。

Article 12.


  No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

第13條


  一、人人在一國境內有自由遷徙及擇居之權。
  二、人人有權離去任何國家,連其本國在內,並有權歸返其本國。

Article 13.


  (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.
  (2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.

第14條


  一、人人為避免迫害有權在他國尋求並享受庇身之所。
  二、控訴之確源於非政治性之犯罪或源於違反聯合國宗旨與原則之行為者,不得享受此種權利。

Article 14.


  (1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
  (2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

第15條


  一、人人有權享有國籍。
  二、任何人之國籍不容無理褫奪,其更改國籍之權利不容否認。

Article 15.


  (1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.
  (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.

第16條


  一、成年男女,不受種族、國籍或宗教之任何限制,有權婚嫁及成立家庭。男女在婚姻方面,在結合期間及在解除婚約時,俱有平等權利。
  二、婚約之締訂僅能以男女雙方之自由完全承諾為之。
  三、家庭為社會之當然基本團體單位,並應受社會及國家之保護。

Article 16.


  (1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
  (2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
  (3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.

第17條


  一、人人有權單獨佔有或與他人合有財產。
  二、任何人之財產不容無理剝奪。

Article 17.


  (1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
  (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.

第18條


  人人有思想、良心與宗教自由之權;此項權利包括其改變宗教或信仰之自由,及其單獨或集體、公開或私自以教義、躬行、禮拜及戒律表示其宗教或信仰之自由。

Article 18.


  Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

第19條


  人人有主張及發表自由之權;此項權利包括保持主張而不受干涉之自由,及經由任何方法不分國界以尋求、接收並傳播消息意見之自由。

Article 19.


  Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

第20條


  一、人人有和平集會結社自由之權。
  二、任何人不容強使隸屬於某一團體。

Article 20.


  (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
  (2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.

第21條


  一、人人有權直接或以自由選舉之代表參加其本國政府。
  二、人人有以平等機會參加其本國公務之權。
  三、人民意志應為攻府權力之基礎;人民意志應以定期且真實之選舉表現之,其選舉權必須普及而平等,並當以不記名投票或相等之自由投票程序為之。

Article 21.


  (1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
  (2) Everyone has the right to equal access to public service in his country.
  (3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.

第22條


  人既為社會之一員,自有權享受社會保障,並有權享受個人尊嚴及人格自由發展所必需之經濟、社會及文化各種權利之實現;此種實現之促成,端賴國家措施與國際合作並當依各國之機構與資源量力為之。

Article 22.


  Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

第23條


  一、人人有權工作、自由選擇職業、享受公平優裕之工作條件及失業之保障。
  二、人人不容任何區別,有同工同酬之權利。
  三、人人工作時,有權享受公平優裕之報酬,務使其本人及其家屬之生活足以維持人類尊嚴必要時且應有他種社會保護辦法,以資補益。
  四、人人為維護其權益,有組織及參加工會之權。

Article 23.


  (1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.
  (2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.
  (3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.
  (4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.

第24條


  人人有休息及閒暇之權,包括工作時間受合理限制及定期有給休假之權。

Article 24.


  Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

第25條


  一、人人有權享受其本人及其家屬康樂所需之生活程度,舉凡衣、食、住、醫藥及必要之社會服務均包括在內;且於失業、患病、殘廢、寡居、衰老或因不可抗力之事故致有他種喪失生活能力之情形時,有權享受保障。
  二、母親及兒童應受特別照顧及協助。所有兒童,無論婚生或非婚生,均應享受同等社會保護。

Article 25.


  (1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
  (2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.

第26條


  一、人人皆有受教育之權。教育應屬免費,至少初級及基本教育應然。初級教育應屬強迫性質。技術與職業教育應廣為設立。高等教育應予人人平等機會,以成績為準。
  二、教育之目標在於充分發展人格,加強對人權及基本自由之尊重。教育應謀促進各國、各種族或各宗教團體間之諒解、容恕及友好關係,並應促進聯合國維繫和平之各種工作。
  三、父母對其子女所應受之教育,有優先決擇之權。

Article 26.


  (1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
  (2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
  (3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

第27條


  一、人人有權自由參加社會之文化生活,欣賞藝術,並共同襄享科學進步及其利益。
  二、人人對其本人之任何科學、文學或美術作品所獲得之精神與物質利益,有享受保護之權。

Article 27.


  (1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
  (2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.

第28條


  人人有權享受本宣言所載權利與自由可得全部實現之社會及國際秩序。

Article 28.


  Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.

第29條


  一、人人對於社會負有義務;個人人格之自由充分發展厥為社會是賴。
  二、人人於行使其權利及自由時僅應受法律所定之限制且此種限制之唯一目的應在確認及尊重他人之權利與自由並謀符合民主社會中道德、公共秩序及一般福利所需之公允條件。
  三、此等權利與自由之行使,無論在任何情形下,均不得違反聯合國之宗旨及原則。

Article 29.


  (1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.
  (2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.
  (3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

第30條


  本宣言所載,不得解釋為任可國家、團體或個人有權以任何活動或任何行為破壞本宣言內之任何權利與自由。

Article 30.


  Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.


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