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【名稱】


公民與政治權利國際公約(International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights)


【發布單位】聯合國大會
【生效日期】1976年3月26日

1‧自1966年12月19日起得由各國在紐約簽署之本盟約;1976年3月26日生效
 

【章節索引】
第壹編 §1
第貳編 §2
第參編 §6
第肆編 §28
第伍編 §46
第陸編 §48

【前文】
  本公約締約各國,鑑於按據聯合國憲章揭示之原則,人類一家,對於人人天賦尊嚴及其平等而且不可割讓權利之確認,實係世界自由、正義與和平之基礎,確認此種權利源於天賦人格尊嚴,確認依據世界人權宣言之昭示,唯有在創造環境,使人人除享有經濟、社會文化權利而外,並得享受公民及政治權利,始克實現自由人類享有公民及政治自由無所恐懼和不虞匱乏之理想。
  鑑於聯合國憲章之規定,各國負有義務,必須促進人權及自由之普遍尊重及遵守,明認個人對他人及其對隸屬之社會,負有義務,故職責所在,必須力求本公約所確認各種權利之促進及遵守。
  爰議定條款如下:

【Preamble】
  The States Parties to the present Covenant,
  Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
  Recognizing that these rights derive from the inherent dignity of the human person,
  Recognizing that, in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the ideal of free human beings enjoying civil and political freedom and freedom from fear and want can only be achieved if conditions are created whereby everyone may enjoy his civil and political rights, as well as his economic, social and cultural rights,
  Considering the obligation of States under the Charter of the United Nations to promote universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and freedoms,
  Realizing that the individual, having duties to other individuals and to the community to which he belongs, is under a responsibility to strive for the promotion and observance of the rights recognized in the present Covenant,
  Agree upon the following articles:
                                            回索引>>

【內容】

第壹編

第1條


  一、所有民族均享有目決權,根據此種權利,自由決定其政治地位並自由從事其經濟、社會與文化之發展。
  二、所有民族得為本身之目的,自由處置其天然財富及資源,但不得妨害因基於互惠原則之國際經濟合作及因國際法而生之任何義務,無論在何種情形下,民族之生計,不容剝奪。
  三、本公約締約國,包括負責管理非自治及託管領土之國家在內,均應遵照聯合國憲章規定,促進自決權之實現,並尊重此種權利。

PART I

Article 1


  1.All peoples have the right of self-determination.By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.
  2.All peoples may, for their own ends, freely dispose of their natural wealth and resources without prejudice to any obligations arising out of international economic co-operation, based upon the principle of mutual benefit, and international law.In no case may a people be deprived of its own means of subsistence.
  3.The States Parties to the present Covenant, including those having responsibility for the administration of Non-Self-Governing and Trust Territories, shall promote the realization of the right of self-determination, and shall respect that right, in conformity with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations.

                                            回索引>>

第貳編

第2條


  一、本公約締約國承允尊重並確保所有境內受其管轄之人,無分種類、膚色、性別、語言、宗教、政見或其他主張民族本源或社會階級、財產、出生或其他主張民族本源或社會階級、財產、出生或其他身分等等,一律享受本公約所確認之權利。
  二、本公約締約國承允遇現行立法或其他措詞尚無規定時,各依本國憲法程序,並遵照本公約規定,採取必要步驟,制定必要之立法或其他措施,以實現本公約所確認之權利。
  三、本公約締約國承允:
  (一)確保任何人所享本公約確認之權利或自由如遭受侵害,均獲有效之救濟,公務員執行職務所犯之侵權行為,亦不例外;
  (二)確保上項救濟聲請人之救濟權利,由主管司法、行政或立法當局裁定,或由該國法律制度規定之其他主管當局裁定,並推廣司法救濟之機會;
  (三)確保上項救濟一經核准,主管當局概予執行。

PART II

Article 2


  1. Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes to respect and to ensure to allindividuals within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction the rights recognized in thepresent Covenant, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language,religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.
  2. Where not already provided for by existing legislative or other measures, each StateParty to the present Covenant undertakes to take the necessary steps, in accordance with itsconstitutional processes and with the provisions of the present Covenant, to adopt suchlegislative or other measures as may be necessary to give effect to the rights recognized inthe present Covenant.
  3. Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes:
  (a)To ensure that any person whose rights or freedoms as herein recognized are violatedshall have an effective remedy, notwithstanding that the violation has been committed bypersons acting in an official capacity;
  (b)To ensure that any person claiming such a remedy shall have his right theretodetermined by competent judicial, administrative or legislative authorities, or by any othercompetent authority provided for by the legal system of the State, and to develop thepossibilities of judicial remedy;
  (c)To ensure that the competent authorities shall enforce such remedies when granted.

第3條


  本公約締約國承允確保本公約所載一切公民及政治權利之享受,男女權利,一律平等。

Article 3


  The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to ensure the equal right of men andwomen to the enjoyment of all civil and political rights set forth in the present Covenant.

第4條


  一、如經當局正式宣布緊急狀態,危及國本,本公約締約國得在此種危急情勢絕對必要之限度內,採取措施,減免履行其依本公約所負之義務,但此種措施不得牴觸其依國際法所負之其他義務,亦不得引起純粹以種族、膚色、性別、語言、宗教或社會階段為根據之歧視。
  二、第六條第七條第八條(第一項及第二項)、第十一條、第十五條、第十六條及第十八條之規定,不得依本條規定減免履行。
  三、本公約締約國行使其減免履行義務之權利者,應立即將其減免履行之條款,及減免履行之理由,經由聯合國秘書長轉知本盟約其他締約國。其終止減免履行之日期,亦應另行移文秘書長轉知。

Article 4


  1 .In time of public emergency which threatens the life of the nation and the existence ofwhich is officially proclaimed, the States Parties to the present Covenant may takemeasures derogating from their obligations under the present Covenant to the extentstrictly required by the exigencies of the situation, provided that such measures are notinconsistent with their other obligations under international law and do not involvediscrimination solely on the ground of race, colour, sex, language, religion or social origin.
  2.No derogation from articles 6, 7, 8(paragraphs 1 and 2), 11, 15, 16 and 18 may be madeunder this provision.
  3.Any State Party to the present Covenant availing itself of the right of derogation shallimmediately inform the other States Parties to the present Covenant, through theintermediary of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, of the provisions from whichit has derogated and of the reasons by which it was actuated.A further communicationshall be made, through the same intermediary, on the date on which it terminates suchderogation.

第5條


  一、本公約條文不得解釋為國家、團體或個人有權從事活動或實行行為,破壞本公約確認之任何一種權利與自由,或限制此種權利與自由逾越本公約規定之程度。
  二、本公約締約國內依法律、公約、條例或習俗而承認或存在之任何基本人權,不得藉口本盟約未予確認或確認之範圍較狹,而加以限制或減免義務。

Article 5


  1.Nothing in the present Covenant may be interpreted as implying for any State, group orperson any right to engage in any activity or perform any act aimed at the destruction ofany of the rights and freedoms recognized herein or at their limitation to a greater extentthan is provided for in the present Covenant.
  2.There shall be no restriction upon or derogation from any of the fundamental humanrights recognized or existing in any State Party to the present Covenant pursuant to law,conventions, regulations or custom on the pretext that the present Covenant does notrecognize such rights or that it recognizes them to a lesser extent.

                                            回索引>>

第參編

第6條


  一、人人皆有天賦之生存權。此種權利應受法律保障。任何人之生命不得無理剝奪。
  二、凡未廢除死刑之國家,非犯情節重大之罪,且依照犯罪時有效並與本公約規定及防止及懲治殘害人群罪公約不牴觸之法律,不得科處死刑。死刑非依管轄法院終局判決,不得執行。
  三、生命之剝奪構成殘害人群罪時,本公約締約國公認本條不得認為授權任何締約國以任何方式減免其依防止及懲治殘害人群罪公約規定所負之任何義務。
  四、受死刑宣告者,有請求特赦或減刑之權。一切判處死刑之案件均得邀大赦、特赦或減刑。
  五、未滿十八歲之人犯罪,不得判處死刑;懷胎婦女被判死刑,不得執行其刑。
  六、本公約締約國不得援引本條,而延緩或阻止死刑之廢除。

PART III

Article 6


  1.Every human being has the inherent right to life.This right shall be protected by law.Noone shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life.
  2.In countries which have not abolished the death penalty, sentence of death may beimposed only for the most serious crimes in accordance with the law in force at the time ofthe commission of the crime and not contrary to the provisions of the present Covenant andto the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.Thispenalty can only be carried out pursuant to a final judgement rendered by a competentcourt.
  3.When deprivation of life constitutes the crime of genocide, it is understood that nothingin this article shall authorize any State Party to the present Covenant to derogate in anyway from any obligation assumed under the provisions of the Convention on thePrevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.
  4.Anyone sentenced to death shall have the right to seek pardon or commutation of thesentence.Amnesty, pardon or commutation of the sentence of death may be granted in allcases.
  5.Sentence of death shall not be imposed for crimes committed by persons below eighteenyears of age and shall not be carried out on pregnant women.
  6.Nothing in this article shall be invoked to delay or to prevent the abolition of capitalpunishment by any State Party to the present Covenant.

第7條


  任何人不得施以酷刑,或予以殘忍、不人道或侮辱之處遇或懲罰。非經本人自願同意,尤不得對任何人作醫學或科學試驗。

Article 7

No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment orpunishment.In particular, no one shall be subjected without his free consent to medical orscientific experimentation.

第8條


  一、任何人不得使充奴隸;奴隸制度及奴隸販賣,不論出於何種方式,悉應禁止。
  二、任何人不得使充奴工。
  (一)任何人不得使服強迫或強制之勞役;
  (二)凡犯罪刑罰得科苦役徒刑之國家,如經管轄法院判處受此刑,不得根據第二項(一)款規定,而不服苦役;
  (三)本項所稱〝強迫或強制勞役〞不包括下列各項:
  (1)經法院依法命令拘禁之人,或在此種拘禁假釋期間之人,通常必須擔任而不屬於(二)款範圍之工作或服役;
  (2)任何軍事性質之服役,及在承認人民可以本其信念反對服兵役之國家,依法對此種人徵服之國民兵役;
  (3)遇有緊急危難或災害禍患危及社會生命安寧時徵召之服役;
  (4)為正常公民義務一部分之工作或服役。

Article 8


  1.No one shall be held in slavery; slavery and the slave-trade in all their forms shall beprohibited.
  2.No one shall be held in servitude.
  3.
  (a)No one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour;
  (b)Paragraph 3(a)shall not be held to preclude, in countries where imprisonment withhard labour may be imposed as a punishment for a crime, the performance of hard labourin pursuance of a sentence to such punishment by a competent court;
  (c)For the purpose of this paragraph the term "forced or compulsory labour" shall notinclude:
  (i)Any work or service, not referred to in sub-paragraph(b), normally required of a personwho is under detention in consequence of a lawful order of a court, or of a person duringconditional release from such detention;(ii)Any service of a military character and, in countries where conscientious objection isrecognized, any national service required by law of conscientious objectors;(iii)Any service exacted in cases of emergency or calamity threatening the life orwell-being of the community;(iv)Any work or service which forms part of normal civil obligations.

第9條


  一、人人有權享有身體自由及人身安全。任何人不得無理予以逮捕或拘禁。非依法定理由及程序,不得剝奪任何人之自由。
  二、執行逮捕時,應當場向被捕人宣告逮捕原因,並應隨即告知被控案由。
  三、因刑事罪名而被逮捕或拘禁之人,應迅即解送法官或依法執行司法權力之其他官員,並應於合理期間內審訊或釋放。候訊人通常不得加以羈押,但釋放得令具報,於審訊時,於司法程序之任何其他階段、並於一旦執行判決時,候傳到場。
  四、任何人因逮捕或拘禁而被奪自由時,有權聲請法院提審,以迅速決定其拘禁是否合法,如屬非法,應即令釋放。
  五、任何人受非法逮捕或拘禁者,有權要求執行損害賠償。

Article 9


  1.Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person.No one shall be subjected toarbitrary arrest or detention.No one shall be deprived of his liberty except on such groundsand in accordance with such procedure as are established by law.
  2.Anyone who is arrested shall be informed, at the time of arrest, of the reasons for hisarrest and shall be promptly informed of any charges against him.
  3.Anyone arrested or detained on a criminal charge shall be brought promptly before ajudge or other officer authorized by law to exercise judicial power and shall be entitled totrial within a reasonable time or to release.It shall not be the general rule that personsawaiting trial shall be detained in custody, but release may be subject to guarantees toappear for trial, at any other stage of the judicial proceedings, and, should occasion arise,for execution of the judgement.
  4.Anyone who is deprived of his liberty by arrest or detention shall be entitled to takeproceedings before a court, in order that court may decide without delay on the lawfulnessof his detention and order his release if the detention is not lawful.
  5.Anyone who has been the victim of unlawful arrest or detention shall have anenforceable right to compensation.

第10條


  一、自由被剝奪之人,應受合於人道及尊重其天賦人格尊嚴之處遇。
  二、(一)除特殊情形外,被告應與判決有罪之人分別羈押,且應另予與其未經判決有罪之身分相稱之處遇;
  (二)少年被告應與成年被告分別羈押,並應儘速即予判決。
  三、監獄制度所定監犯之處遇,應以使其悛悔自新,重適社會生活為基本目的。少年犯人應與成年犯人分別拘禁,且其處遇應與其年齡及法律身分相稱。

Article 10


  1.All persons deprived of their liberty shall be treated with humanity and with respect forthe inherent dignity of the human person.
  2.(a)Accused persons shall, save in exceptional circumstances, be segregated fromconvicted persons and shall be subject to separate treatment appropriate to their status asunconvicted persons;
  (b)Accused juvenile persons shall be separated from adults and brought as speedily aspossible for adjudication.
  3.The penitentiary system shall comprise treatment of prisoners the essential aim of whichshall be their reformation and social rehabilitation.Juvenile offenders shall be segregatedfrom adults and be accorded treatment appropriate to their age and legal status.

第11條


  任何人不得僅因無力履行契約義務,即予監禁。

Article 11


  No one shall be imprisoned merely on the ground of inability to fulfil a contractualobligation.

第12條


  一、在一國領土內合法居留之人,在該國領土內有遷徙往來之自由及擇居之自由。
  二、人人應有自由離去任何國家,連其本國在內。
  三、上列權利不得限制,但法律所規定、保護國家安全、公共秩序、公共衛生或風化、或他人權利與自由所必要,且與本公約所確認之其他權利不牴觸之限制,不在此限。
  四、人人進入其本國之權,不得無理褫奪。

Article 12


  1.Everyone lawfully within the territory of a State shall, within that territory, have theright to liberty of movement and freedom to choose his residence.
  2.Everyone shall be free to leave any country, including his own.
  3.The above-mentioned rights shall not be subject to any restrictions except those whichare provided by law, are necessary to protect national security, public order(ordre public),public health or morals or the rights and freedoms of others, and are consistent with theother rights recognized in the present Covenant.
  4.No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of the right to enter his own country.

第13條


  本公約締約國境內合法居留之外國人,非經依法判定,不得驅逐出境,且除事關國家安全必須急速處分者外,應准其提出不服驅逐出境之理由,及聲請主管當局或主管當局特別指定之人員予以覆判,並為此目的委託代理人到場申訴。

Article 13


  An alien lawfully in the territory of a State Party to the present Covenant may be expelledtherefrom only in pursuance of a decision reached in accordance with law and shall, exceptwhere compelling reasons of national security otherwise require, be allowed to submit thereasons against his expulsion and to have his case reviewed by, and be represented for thepurpose before, the competent authority or a person or persons especially designated by thecompetent authority.

第14條


  一、人人在法院或法庭之前,悉屬平等。任何人受刑事控告或因其權利義務涉訟須予判定時,應有權受獨立無私之法定管轄法庭公正公開審問。法院得因民主社會之風化、公共秩序或國家安全關係,或於保護當事人私生活有此必要時,或因情形特殊公開審判勢必影響司法而在其認為絕對必要之限度內,禁止新聞界及公眾旁聽審判程序之全部或一部;但除保護少年有此必要,或事關婚姻爭執或子女監護問題外,刑事民事之判決應一律公開宣示。
  二、受刑事控告之人,未經依法確定有罪以前,應假定其無罪。
  三、審判被控刑事罪時,被告一律有權平等享受下列最低限度之保障:
  (一)迅即以其通曉之語言,詳細告知被控罪名及案由;
  (二)給予充分之時間及便利,準備答辯並與其選任之辯護人聯絡;
  (三)立即受審,不得無故稽延;
  (四)到庭受審,及親自答辯或由其選任辯護人答辯;未經選任辯護人者,應告以有此權利;法院認為審判有此必要時,應為其指定公設辯護人,如被告無資力酬償,得免付之;
  (五)得親自或間接詰問他造證人,並得聲請法院傳喚其證人在與他造證人同等條件下出庭作證;
  (六)如不通曉或不能使用法院所用之語言,應免費為備通譯協助之;
  (七)不得強迫被告自供或認罪。
  四、少年犯罪之審判,應顧念被告年齡及宜使其重適社會生活,而酌定程序。
  五、經判定犯罪者,有權聲請上級法院依法覆判其有罪判決及所科刑罰。
  六、經終局判決判定犯罪,如後因提出新證據或因發見新證據,確實證明原判錯誤而經撤銷原判或免刑者,除經證明有關證據之未能及時披露,應由其本人全部或局部負責者外,因此判決而服刑之人應依法受損害賠償。
  七、任何人依一國法律及刑事程序經終局判決判定有罪或無罪開釋者,不得就同一罪名再予審判或科刑。

Article 14


  1.All persons shall be equal before the courts and tribunals.In the determination of anycriminal charge against him, or of his rights and obligations in a suit at law, everyone shallbe entitled to a fair and public hearing by a competent, independent and impartial tribunalestablished by law.The press and the public may be excluded from all or part of a trial forreasons of morals, public order(ordre public)or national security in a democratic society,or when the interest of the private lives of the parties so requires, or to the extent strictlynecessary in the opinion of the court in special circumstances where publicity wouldprejudice the interests of justice; but any judgement rendered in a criminal case or in a suitat law shall be made public except where the interest of juvenile persons otherwise requiresor the proceedings concern matrimonial disputes or the guardianship of children.
  2.Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall have the right to be presumed innocentuntil proved guilty according to law.
  3.In the determination of any criminal charge against him, everyone shall be entitled to thefollowing minimum guarantees, in full equality:
  (a)To be informed promptly and in detail in a language which he understands of the natureand cause of the charge against him;
  (b)To have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence and tocommunicate with counsel of his own choosing;
  (c)To be tried without undue delay;
  (d)To be tried in his presence, and to defend himself in person or through legal assistanceof his own choosing; to be informed, if he does not have legal assistance, of this right; andto have legal assistance assigned to him, in any case where the interests of justice sorequire, and without payment by him in any such case if he does not have sufficient meansto pay for it;
  (e)To examine, or have examined, the witnesses against him and to obtain the attendanceand examination of witnesses on his behalf under the same conditions as witnesses againsthim;
  (f)To have the free assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand or speak thelanguage used in court;
  (g)Not to be compelled to testify against himself or to confess guilt.
  4.In the case of juvenile persons, the procedure shall be such as will take account of theirage and the desirability of promoting their rehabilitation.
  5.Everyone convicted of a crime shall have the right to his conviction and sentence beingreviewed by a higher tribunal according to law.
  6.When a person has by a final decision been convicted of a criminal offence and whensubsequently his conviction has been reversed or he has been pardoned on the ground thata new or newly discovered fact shows conclusively that there has been a miscarriage ofjustice, the person who has suffered punishment as a result of such conviction shall becompensated according to law, unless it is proved that the non-disclosure of the unknownfact in time is wholly or partly attributable to him.
  7.No one shall be liable to be tried or punished again for an offence for which he hasalready been finally convicted or acquitted in accordance with the law and penal procedureof each country.

第15條


  一、任何人之行為或不行為,於發生當時依內國法及國際法均不成罪者,不為罪。刑罰不得重於犯罪時法律所規定。犯罪後之法律規定減科刑罰者,從有利於行為人之法律。
  二、任何人之行為或不行為,於發生當時依各國公認之一般法律原則為有罪者,其審判與刑罰不受本條規定之影響。

Article 15


  1 .No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omissionwhich did not constitute a criminal offence, under national or international law, at the timewhen it was committed.Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that wasapplicable at the time when the criminal offence was committed.If, subsequent to thecommission of the offence, provision is made by law for the imposition of the lighterpenalty, the offender shall benefit thereby.
  2.Nothing in this article shall prejudice the trial and punishment of any person for any actor omission which, at the time when it was committed, was criminal according to thegeneral principles of law recognized by the community of nations.

第16條


  人人在任何所在有被承認為法律人格之權利。

Article 16


  Everyone shall have the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

第17條


  一、任何人之私生活、家庭、住宅或通信,不得無理或非法侵擾,其名譽及信用,亦不得非法破壞。
  二、對於此種侵擾或破壞,人人有受法律保護之權利。

Article 17


  1.No one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy, family,home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honour and reputation.
  2.Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

第18條


  一、人人有思想、信念及宗教之自由。此種權利包括保有或採奉自擇之宗教或信仰之自由,及單獨或集體、公開或私自以禮拜、戒律、躬行及講授表示其宗教或信仰之自由。
  二、任何人所享保有或採奉自擇之宗教或信仰之自由,不得以脅迫侵害之。
  三、人人表示其宗教或信仰之自由,非依法律,不受限制,此項限制以保障公共安全、秩序、衛生或風化或他人之基本權利自由所必要者為限。
  四、本公約締約國承允尊重父母或法定監護人確保子女接受符合其本人信仰之宗教及道德教育之自由。

Article 18


  1.Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.This rightshall include freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice, and freedom,either individually or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest hisreligion or belief in worship, observance, practice and teaching.
  2.No one shall be subject to coercion which would impair his freedom to have or to adopta religion or belief of his choice.
  3.Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs may be subject only to such limitations asare prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, health, or morals orthe fundamental rights and freedoms of others.
  4.The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to have respect for the liberty ofparents and, when applicable, legal guardians to ensure the religious and moral educationof their children in conformity with their own convictions.

第19條


  一、人人有保持意見不受干預之權利。
  二、人人有發表自由之權利;此種權利包括以語言、文字或出版物、藝術或自己選擇之其他方式,不分國界,尋求、接受及傳播各種消息及思想之自由。
  三、本條第二項所載權利之行使,附有特別責任及義務,故得予以某種限制,但此種限制以經法律規定,且為下列各項所必要者為限:
  (一)尊重他人權利或名譽;
  (二)保障國家安全或公共秩序,或公共衛生或風化。

Article 19


  1.Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference.
  2.Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedomto seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, eitherorally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice.
  3.The exercise of the rights provided for in paragraph 2 of this article carries with itspecial duties and responsibilities.It may therefore be subject to certain restrictions, butthese shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary:
  (a)For respect of the rights or reputations of others;
  (b)For the protection of national security or of public order(ordre public), or of publichealth or morals.

第20條


  一、任何鼓吹戰爭之宣傳,應以法律禁止之。
  二、任何鼓吹民族、種族或宗教仇恨之主張,構成煽動、歧視、敵視或強暴者,應以法律禁止之。

Article 20


  1.Any propaganda for war shall be prohibited by law.
  2.Any advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that constitutes incitement todiscrimination, hostility or violence shall be prohibited by law.

第21條


  和平集會之權利,應予確認。除依法律之規定,且為民主社會維護國家安全或公共安寧、公共秩序、維持公共衛生或風化、或保障他人權利自由所必要者外,不得限制此種權利之行使。

Article 21


  The right of peaceful assembly shall be recognized.No restrictions may be placed on theexercise of this right other than those imposed in conformity with the law and which arenecessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety,public order(ordre public), the protection of public health or morals or the protection ofthe rights and freedoms of others.

第22條


  一、人人有自由結社之權利,包括為保障其本身利益而組織及加入工會之權利。
  二、除依法律之規定,且為民主社會維護國家安全或公共安寧、公共秩序、維護公共衛生或風化、或保障他人權利自由所必要者外,不得限制此種權利之行使。本條並不禁止對軍警人員行使此種權利,加以合法限制。
  三、關於結社自由及保障組織權利之國際勞工組織一九四八年公約締約國,不得根據本條採取立法措施或應用法律,妨礙該公約所規定之保證。

Article 22


  1.Everyone shall have the right to freedom of association with others, including the rightto form and join trade unions for the protection of his interests.
  2.No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other than those which areprescribed by law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests ofnational security or public safety, public order(ordre public), the protection of publichealth or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.This article shall notprevent the imposition of lawful restrictions on members of the armed forces and of thepolice in their exercise of this right.
  3.Nothing in this article shall authorize States Parties to the International LabourOrganisation Convention of 1948 concerning Freedom of Association and Protection of theRight to Organize to take legislative measures which would prejudice, or to apply the lawin such a manner as to prejudice, the guarantees provided for in that Convention.

第23條


  一、家庭為社會之自然基本團體單位,應受社會及國家之保護。
  二、男女已達結婚年齡者,其結婚及成立家庭之權利應予確認。
  三、婚姻非經婚嫁雙方自由完全同意,不得締結。
  四、本公約締約國應採取適當步驟,確保夫妻在婚姻方面,在婚姻關係存續期間,以及在婚姻關係消滅時,雙方權利責任平等。婚姻關係消滅時,應訂定辦法,對子女予以必要之保護。

Article 23


  1.The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled toprotection by society and the State.
  2.The right of men and women of marriageable age to marry and to found a family shallbe recognized.
  3.No marriage shall be entered into without the free and full consent of the intendingspouses.
  4.States Parties to the present Covenant shall take appropriate steps to ensure equality ofrights and responsibilities of spouses as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.In the case of dissolution, provision shall be made for the necessary protection of anychildren.

第24條


  一、所有兒童有權享受家庭、社會及國家為其未成年身分給予之必需保護措施,不因種族、膚色、性別、語言、宗教、民族本源或社會、階段財產、或出生而受歧視。
  二、所有兒童出生後應立予登記,並取得名字。
  三、所有兒童有取得國籍之權。

Article 24


  1.Every child shall have, without any discrimination as to race, colour, sex, language,religion, national or social origin, property or birth, the right to such measures of protectionas are required by his status as a minor, on the part of his family, society and the State.
  2.Every child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have a name.
  3.Every child has the right to acquire a nationality.

第25條


  一、凡屬公民,無分第二條所列之任何區別,不受無理限制,均應有權利及機會:
  (一)直接或經由自由選舉之代表參與政事;
  (二)在真正、定期之選舉中投票及被選。選舉權必須普及而平等,選舉應以無記名投票法行之,以保證選民意志之自由表現;
  (三)以一般平等之條件,服本國公職。

Article 25

Every citizen shall have the right and the opportunity, without any of the distinctionsmentioned in article 2 and without unreasonable restrictions:
  (a)To take part in the conduct of public affairs, directly or through freely chosenrepresentatives;
  (b)To vote and to be elected at genuine periodic elections which shall be by universal andequal suffrage and shall be held by secret ballot, guaranteeing the free expression of thewill of the electors;
  (c)To have access, on general terms of equality, to public service in his country.

第26條


  人人在法律上一律平等,且應受法律平等保護,無所歧視。在此方面,法律應禁止任何歧視,並保證人人享受平等而有效之保護,以防因種族、膚色、性別、語言、宗教、政見或其他主張、民族本源或社會階級、財產、出生或其他身分而生之歧視。

Article 26


  All persons are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to theequal protection of the law.In this respect, the law shall prohibit any discrimination andguarantee to all persons equal and effective protection against discrimination on anyground such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national orsocial origin, property, birth or other status.

第27條


  凡有種族、宗教或語言少數團體之國家,屬於此類少數團體之人,與團體中其他分子共同享受其固有文化、信奉躬行其固有宗教或使用其固有語言之權利,不得剝奪之。

Article 27


  In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities exist, persons belonging tosuch minorities shall not be denied the right, in community with the other members of theirgroup, to enjoy their own culture, to profess and practise their own religion, or to use theirown language.

                                            回索引>>

第肆編

第28條


  一、茲設置人權事宜委員會(本公約下文簡稱委員會)委員十八人,執行以下規定之職務。
  二、委員會委員應為本公約締約國國民,品格高尚且在人權問題方面聲譽素著之人士;同時並應計及宜選若干具有法律經驗之人士擔任委員。
  三、委員會委員以個人資格當選任職。

PART IV

Article 28


  1.There shall be established a Human Rights Committee(hereafter referred to in thepresent Covenant as the Committee).It shall consist of eighteen members and shall carryout the functions hereinafter provided.
  2.The Committee shall be composed of nationals of the States Parties to the presentCovenant who shall be persons of high moral character and recognized competence in thefield of human rights, consideration being given to the usefulness of the participation ofsome persons having legal experience.
  3.The members of the Committee shall be elected and shall serve in their personalcapacity.

第29條


  一、委員會之委員應自具備第二十八條所規定資格並經本公約締約國為此提名之人士名單中以無記名投票選舉之。
  二、本公約各締約國提出人選不得多於二人,所提人選應為提名國國民。
  三、候選人選,得續予提名。

Article 29


  1 .The members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot from a list of personspossessing the qualifications prescribed in article 28 and nominated for the purpose by theStates Parties to the present Covenant.
  2.Each State Party to the present Covenant may nominate not more than two persons.These persons shall be nationals of the nominating State.
  3.A person shall be eligible for renomination.

第30條


  一、初次選舉至遲應於本公約開始生效後六個月內舉行。
  二、除依據第三十四條規定宣告出缺而舉行之補缺選舉外,聯合國秘書長至遲應於委員會各次選舉日期四個月前以書面邀請本公約締約國於三個月內提出委員會委員候選人。
  三、聯合國秘書長應就所提出之候選人,按照字母次序編製名單,標明推薦其候選之締約國,至遲於每次選舉日期一個月前,送達本公約締約國。
  四、委員會委員之選舉應由聯合國秘書長在聯合國會所召集之締約國會議舉行之,該會議以締約國之三分之二出席為法定人數,候選人獲票最多且得出席及投票締約國代表絕對過半數票者當選為委員會委員。

Article 30


  1.The initial election shall be held no later than six months after the date of the entry intoforce of the present Covenant.
  2.At least four months before the date of each election to the Committee, other than anelection to fill a vacancy declared in accordance with article 34, the Secretary-General ofthe United Nations shall address a written invitation to the States Parties to the presentCovenant to submit their nominations for membership of the Committee within threemonths.
  3.The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall prepare a list in alphabetical order ofall the persons thus nominated, with an indication of the States Parties which havenominated them, and shall submit it to the States Parties to the present Covenant no laterthan one month before the date of each election.
  4.Elections of the members of the Committee shall be held at a meeting of the StatesParties to the present Covenant convened by the Secretary General of the United Nations atthe Headquarters of the United Nations.At that meeting, for which two thirds of the StatesParties to the present Covenant shall constitute a quorum, the persons elected to theCommittee shall be those nominees who obtain the largest number of votes and an absolutemajority of the votes of the representatives of States Parties present and voting.

第31條


  一、委員會不得有委員一人以上為同一國家之國民。
  二、選舉委員會委員時應計及地域公勻分配及確能代表世界不同文化及各主要法系之原則。

Article 31


  1.The Committee may not include more than one national of the same State.
  2.In the election of the Committee, consideration shall be given to equitable geographicaldistribution of membership and to the representation of the different forms of civilizationand of the principal legal systems.

第32條


  一、委員會委員任期四年。續經提名者連選得連任。但第一次選出之委員中九人任期應為二年;任期二年之委員九人,應於第一次選舉完畢後,立由第三十條第四項所稱會議之主席,以抽籤方法決定之。
  二、委員會委員任滿時之改選,應依照本公約本編以上各條舉行之。

Article 32


  1.The members of the Committee shall be elected for a term of four years.They shall beeligible for re-election if renominated.However, the terms of nine of the members electedat the first election shall expire at the end of two years; immediately after the first election,the names of these nine members shall be chosen by lot by the Chairman of the meetingreferred to in article 30, paragraph 4.
  2.Elections at the expiry of office shall be held in accordance with the preceding articlesof this part of the present Covenant.

第33條


  一、委員會某一委員倘經其委員一致認為由於暫時缺席以外之其他原因,業已停止執行職務時,委員會主席應通知聯合國秘書長,由其宣告該委員出缺。
  二、委員會委員死亡或辭職時,委員會主席應即通知聯合國秘書長,由其宣告該委員自死亡或辭職生效之日起出缺。

Article 33


  1.If, in the unanimous opinion of the other members, a member of the Committee hasceased to carry out his functions for any cause other than absence of a temporary character,the Chairman of the Committee shall notify the Secretary-General of the United Nations,who shall then declare the seat of that member to be vacant.
  2.In the event of the death or the resignation of a member of the Committee, the Chairmanshall immediately notify the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall declare theseat vacant from the date of death or the date on which the resignation takes effect.

第34條


  一、遇有第三十三條所稱情形宣告出缺,且須行補選之委員任期不在宣告出席六個月內屆滿者,聯合國秘書長應通知本公約各締約國,各締約國得於兩個月內依照第二十九條提出候選人,以備補缺。
  二、聯合國秘書長應就所提出之候選人,按照字母次序編製名單,送達本公約締約國。補缺選舉應於編送名單後依照本公約本編有關規定舉行之。
  三、委員會委員之當選遞補依第三十三條規定宣告之懸缺者,應任職至依該條規定出缺之委員會委員任期屆滿時為止。

Article 34


  1.When a vacancy is declared in accordance with article 33 and if the term of office of themember to be replaced does not expire within six months of the declaration of the vacancy,the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall notify each of the States Parties to thepresent Covenant, which may within two months submit nominations in accordance with Article 29 for the purpose of filling the vacancy.
  2.The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall prepare a list in alphabetical order ofthe persons thus nominated and shall submit it to the States Parties to the present Covenant.The election to fill the vacancy shall then take place in accordance with the relevantprovisions of this part of the present Covenant.
  3.A member of the Committee elected to fill a vacancy declared in accordance with article 33 shall hold office for the remainder of the term of the member who vacated the seat onthe Committee under the provisions of that article.

第35條


  委員會委員經聯合國大會核准,自聯合國資金項下支取報酬,其待遇及條件由大會參酌委員會所負重大責任定之。

Article 35


  The members of the Committee shall, with the approval of the General Assembly of theUnited Nations, receive emoluments from United Nations resources on such terms andconditions as the General Assembly may decide, having regard to the importance of theCommittee's responsibilities.

第36條


  聯合國秘書長應供給委員會必要之辦事人員及便利,俾得有效執行本公約所規定之職務。

Article 36


  The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide the necessary staff and facilitiesfor the effective performance of the functions of the Committee under the presentCovenant.

第37條


  一、委員會首次會議由聯合國秘書長在聯合國會所召集之。
  二、委員會舉行首次會議後,遇委員會議事規則規定之情形召開會議。
  三、委員會會議通常應在聯合國會所或日內瓦聯合國辦事處舉行之。

Article 37


  1.The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall convene the initial meeting of theCommittee at the Headquarters of the United Nations.
  2.After its initial meeting, the Committee shall meet at such times as shall be provided inits rules of procedure.
  3.The Committee shall normally meet at the Headquarters of the United Nations or at theUnited Nations Office at Geneva.

第38條


  委員會每一委員就職時,應在委員會公開集會中鄭重宣言,必當秉公竭誠,執行職務。

Article 38


  Every member of the Committee shall, before taking up his duties, make a solemndeclaration in open committee that he will perform his functions impartially andconscientiously.

第39條


  一、委員會應自行選舉其職員,任期二年,連選得連任。
  二、委員會應自行制定議事規則,其中應有下列規定:
  (一)委員十二人構成法定人數;
  (二)委員會之決議以出席委員過半數之同意為之。

Article 39


  1.The Committee shall elect its officers for a term of two years.They may be re-elected.
  2.The Committee shall establish its own rules of procedure, but these rules shall provide,inter alia, that:
  (a)Twelve members shall constitute a quorum;
  (b)Decisions of the Committee shall be made by a majority vote of the members present.

第40條


  一、本公約締約國承允依照下列規定,各就其實施本公約所確認權利而採取之措施,及在享受各種權利方面所獲之進展,提具報告書:
  (一)本公約對關係締約國生效後一年內;
  (二)其後遇委員會提出請求時。
  二、所有報告書應交由聯合國秘書長轉送委員會審議。如有任何因素及困難影響本公約之實施,報告書應予說明。
  三、聯合國秘書長與委員會商洽後得將報告書中屬於關係專門機關職權範圍之部分副本轉送各該專門機關。
  四、委員會應研究本公約締約國提出之報告書。委員會應向締約國提送其報告書及其認為適當之一般評議。委員會亦得將此等評議連同其自本公約締約國收到之報告書副本轉送經濟暨社會理事會。
  五、本公約締約國得就委員會可能依據本條第四項規定提出之任何評議向委員會提出意見。

Article 40


  1.The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to submit reports on the measuresthey have adopted which give effect to the rights recognized herein and on the progressmade in the enjoyment of those rights:
  (a)Within one year of the entry into force of the present Covenant for the States Partiesconcerned;
  (b)Thereafter whenever the Committee so requests.
  2.All reports shall be submitted to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shalltransmit them to the Committee for consideration.Reports shall indicate the factors anddifficulties, if any, affecting the implementation of the present Covenant.
  3.The Secretary-General of the United Nations may, after consultation with the Committee,transmit to the specialized agencies concerned copies of such parts of the reports as mayfall within their field of competence.
  4.The Committee shall study the reports submitted by the States Parties to the presentCovenant.It shall transmit its reports, and such general comments as it may considerappropriate, to the States Parties.The Committee may also transmit to the Economic andSocial Council these comments along with the copies of the reports it has received fromStates Parties to the present Covenant.
  5.The States Parties to the present Covenant may submit to the Committee observations onany comments that may be made in accordance with paragraph 4 of this article.

第41條


  一、本公約締約國得依據本條規定,隨時聲明承認委員會有權接受並審議一締約國指稱另一締約國不履行本公約義務之來文。依本條規定而遞送之來文,必須為曾聲明其本身承認委員會有權之締約國所提出方得予以接受並審查。如來文關涉未作此種聲明之締約國,委員會不得接受之。依照本條規定接受之來文應照下開程序處理:
  (一)如本公約某一締約國認為另一締約國未實施本公約條款,得書面提請該締約國注意。受請國應於收到此項來文三個月內,向遞送來文之國家書面提出解釋或任何其他聲明,以闡明此事,其中應在可能及適當範圍內,載明有關此事之本國處理辦法,及業經採取或正在決定或可資援用之救濟辦法。
  (二)如在受請國收到第一件來文後六個月內,問題仍未獲關係締約國雙國雙方滿意之調整,當事國任何一方均有權通知委員會及其他一方,將事件提交委員會。
  (三)委員會對於提請處理之事件,應於查明對此事件可以運用之國內救濟辦法悉已援用無遺後,依照公認之國際法原則處理之。但如救濟辦法之實施有不合理之拖延,則不在此限。
  (四)委員會審查本條所稱之來文時應舉行不公開會議。
  (五)以不牴觸(三)款之規定為限,委員會應斡旋關係締約國俾以尊重本公約所確認之人權及基本自由為基礎,友善解決事件。
  (六)委員會對於提請處理之任何事件,得請(二)款所稱之關係締約國提供任何有關情報。
  (七)(二)款所稱關係締約國有權於委員會審議此事件時出席並提出口頭及或書面陳述。
  (八)委員會應於接獲依(二)款所規定通知之日起十二個月內提出報告書:
  (1)如已達成(五)款規定之解決辦法,委員會報告書應以扼要敘述事實及所達成之解決辦法為限。
  (2)如未達成(五)款規定之解決辦法,委員會報告書應以扼要敘述事實為限;關係締約國提出之書面陳述及口頭陳述紀錄應附載於報告書內。關於每一事件,委員會應將報告書送達各關係締約國。
  二、本條之規定應於本公約十締約國發表本條第一項所稱之聲明後生效。
  此種聲明應由締約國交存聯合國秘書長,由秘書長將聲明副本轉送其他締約國。締約國得隨時通知秘書長撤回聲明。此種撤回不得影響對業經依照本條規定遞送之來文中所提事件之審議;秘書長接得撤回通知後,除非關係締約國另作新聲明,該國再有來文時不予接受。

Article 41


  1.A State Party to the present Covenant may at any time declare under this article that itrecognizes the competence of the Committee to receive and consider communications tothe effect that a State Party claims that another State Party is not fulfilling its obligationsunder the present Covenant.Communications under this article may be received andconsidered only if submitted by a State Party which has made a declaration recognizing inregard to itself the competence of the Committee.No communication shall be received bythe Committee if it concerns a State Party which has not made such a declaration.Communications received under this article shall be dealt with in accordance with thefollowing procedure:
  (a)If a State Party to the present Covenant considers that another State Party is not givingeffect to the provisions of the present Covenant, it may, by written communication, bringthe matter to the attention of that State Party.Within three months after the receipt of thecommunication the receiving State shall afford the State which sent the communication anexplanation, or any other statement in writing clarifying the matter which should include,to the extent possible and pertinent, reference to domestic procedures and remedies taken,pending, or available in the matter;
  (b)If the matter is not adjusted to the satisfaction of both States Parties concerned withinsix months after the receipt by the receiving State of the initial communication, either Stateshall have the right to refer the matter to the Committee, by notice given to the Committeeand to the other State;
  (c)The Committee shall deal with a matter referred to it only after it has ascertained thatall available domestic remedies have been invoked and exhausted in the matter, inconformity with the generally recognized principles of international law.This shall not bethe rule where the application of the remedies is unreasonably prolonged;
  (d)The Committee shall hold closed meetings when examining communications under this Article;
  (e)Subject to the provisions of sub-paragraph(c), the Committee shall make available itsgood offices to the States Parties concerned with a view to a friendly solution of the matteron the basis of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms as recognized in thepresent Covenant;
  (f)In any matter referred to it, the Committee may call upon the States Parties concerned,referred to in subparagraph(b), to supply any relevant information;
  (g)The States Parties concerned, referred to in sub-paragraph(b), shall have the right to berepresented when the matter is being considered in the Committee and to makesubmissions orally and/or in writing;
  (h)The Committee shall, within twelve months after the date of receipt of notice undersub-paragraph(b), submit a report:
  (i)If a solution within the terms of sub-paragraph(e)is reached, the Committee shallconfine its report to a brief statement of the facts and of the solution reached;(ii)If a solution within the terms of sub-paragraph(e)is not reached, the Committee shallconfine its report to a brief statement of the facts; the written submissions and record of theoral submissions made by the States Parties concerned shall be attached to the report.In every matter, the report shall be communicated to the States Parties concerned.
  2.The provisions of this article shall come into force when ten States Parties to the presentCovenant have made declarations under paragraph 1 of this article.Such declarations shallbe deposited by the States Parties with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, whoshall transmit copies thereof to the other States Parties.A declaration may be withdrawn atany time by notification to the Secretary-General.Such a withdrawal shall not prejudicethe consideration of any matter which is the subject of a communication alreadytransmitted under this article; no further communication by any State Party shall bereceived after the notification of withdrawal of the declaration has been received by theSecretary-General, unless the State Party concerned has made a new declaration.

第42條


  一、(一)如依第四十一條之規定提請委員會處理之事件未能獲得關係締約國滿意之解決,委員會得經關係締約國事先同意,指派一專設和解委員會(下文簡稱和委會)。和委會應為關係締約國斡旋,俾以尊重本公約為基礎,和睦解決問題;
  (二)和委會由關係締約國接受之委員五人組成之。如關係締約國於三個月內對和委會組成之全部或一部未能達成協議,未得協議之和委會委員應由委員會用無記名投票法以三分之二之多數自其本身委員中選出之。
  二、和委會委員以個人資格任職。委員不得為關係締約國之國民,或為非本公約締約國之國民,或未依第四十一條規定發表聲明之締約國國民。
  三、和委會應自行選舉主席及制訂議事規則。
  四、和委會會議通常應在聯合國會所或日內瓦聯合國辦事處舉行,但亦得於和委會諮商聯合國秘書長及關係締約國決定之其他方便地點舉行。
  五、依第三十六條設置之秘書處應亦為本條指派之和委會服務。
  六、委員會所蒐集整理之情報,應提送和委會,和委會亦得請關係締約國提供任何其他有關情報。
  七、和委會於詳盡審議案件後,無論如何應於受理該案件十二個月內,向委員會主席提出報告書,轉送關係締約國:
  (一)和委會如未能於十二個月內完成案件之審議,其報告書應以扼要說明審議案件之情形為限;
  (二)和委會如能達成以尊重本公約所確認之人權為基礎之和睦解決問題辦法,其報告書應以扼要說明事實及所達成之解決辦法為限;
  (三)如未能達成(二)款規定之解決辦法,和委會報告書應載有其對於關係締約國爭執事件之一切有關事實問題之結論,以及對於事件和睦解決各種可能性之意見。此項報告書應亦載有關係締約國提出之書面陳述及所作口頭陳述之紀錄;
  (四)和委會報告書如係依(三)款之規定提出,關係締約國應於收到報告書後三月內通知委員會主席願否接受和委會報告書內容。
  八、本條規定不影響委員會依第四十條所負之責任。
  九、關係締約國應依照聯合國秘書長所提概算,平均負擔和委會委員之一切費用。
  十、聯合國秘書長有權於必要時在關係締約國依本條第九項償還用款之前,支付和委會委員之費用。

Article 42


  1.(a)If a matter referred to the Committee in accordance with article 41 is not resolved to thesatisfaction of the States Parties concerned, the Committee may, with the prior consent ofthe States Parties concerned, appoint an ad hoc Conciliation Commission(hereinafterreferred to as the Commission).The good offices of the Commission shall be madeavailable to the States Parties concerned with a view to an amicable solution of the matteron the basis of respect for the present Covenant;
  (b)The Commission shall consist of five persons acceptable to the States Parties concerned.If the States Parties concerned fail to reach agreement within three months on all or part ofthe composition of the Commission, the members of the Commission concerning whom noagreement has been reached shall be elected by secret ballot by a two-thirds majority voteof the Committee from among its members.
  2.The members of the Commission shall serve in their personal capacity.They shall not benationals of the States Parties concerned, or of a State not Party to the present Covenant, orof a State Party which has not made a declaration under article 41.
  3.The Commission shall elect its own Chairman and adopt its own rules of procedure.
  4.The meetings of the Commission shall normally be held at the Headquarters of theUnited Nations or at the United Nations Office at Geneva.However, they may be held atsuch other convenient places as the Commission may determine in consultation with theSecretary-General of the United Nations and the States Parties concerned.
  5.The secretariat provided in accordance with article 36 shall also service the commissionsappointed under this article.
  6.The information received and collated by the Committee shall be made available to theCommission and the Commission may call upon the States Parties concerned to supply anyother relevant information.
  7.When the Commission has fully considered the matter, but in any event not later thantwelve months after having been seized of the matter, it shall submit to the Chairman of theCommittee a report for communication to the States Parties concerned:
  (a)If the Commission is unable to complete its consideration of the matter within twelvemonths, it shall confine its report to a brief statement of the status of its consideration ofthe matter;
  (b)If an amicable solution to the matter on the basis of respect for human rights asrecognized in the present Covenant is reached, the Commission shall confine its report to abrief statement of the facts and of the solution reached;
  (c)If a solution within the terms of sub-paragraph(b)is not reached, the Commission'sreport shall embody its findings on all questions of fact relevant to the issues between theStates Parties concerned, and its views on the possibilities of an amicable solution of thematter.This report shall also contain the written submissions and a record of the oralsubmissions made by the States Parties concerned;
  (d)If the Commission's report is submitted under sub-paragraph(c), the States Partiesconcerned shall, within three months of the receipt of the report, notify the Chairman of theCommittee whether or not they accept the contents of the report of the Commission.
  8.The provisions of this article are without prejudice to the responsibilities of theCommittee under article 41.
  9.The States Parties concerned shall share equally all the expenses of the members of theCommission in accordance with estimates to be provided by the Secretary-General of theUnited Nations.
  10.The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be empowered to pay the expensesof the members of the Commission, if necessary, before reimbursement by the StatesParties concerned, in accordance with paragraph 9 of this article.

第43條


  委員會委員,以及依第四十二條可能指派之專設和解委員會委員,應有權享受聯合國特權豁免公約內有關各款為因聯合國公務出差之專家所規定之便利、特權與豁免。

Article 43


  The members of the Committee, and of the ad hoc conciliation commissions which may beappointed under article 42, shall be entitled to the facilities, privileges and immunities ofexperts on mission for the United Nations as laid down in the relevant sections of theConvention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations.

第44條


  本公約實施條款之適用不得妨礙聯合國及各專門機關之組織約章及公約在人權方面所訂之程序,或根據此等約章及公約所訂之程序,亦不得阻止本公約各締約國依照彼此間現行之一般或特別國際協定,採用其他程序解決爭端。

Article 44


  The provisions for the implementation of the present Covenant shall apply withoutprejudice to the procedures prescribed in the field of human rights by or under theconstituent instruments and the conventions of the United Nations and of the specializedagencies and shall not prevent the States Parties to the present Covenant from havingrecourse to other procedures for settling a dispute in accordance with general or specialinternational agreements in force between them.

第45條


  委員會應經由經濟暨社會理事會向聯合國大會提送常年工作報告書。

Article 45


  The Committee shall submit to the General Assembly of the United Nations, through theEconomic and Social Council, an annual report on its activities.

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第伍編

第46條


  本公約之解釋,不得影響聯合國憲章及各專門機關組織法內規定聯合國各機關及各專門機關分別對本公約所處理各種事項所負責任之規定。

PART V

Article 46


  Nothing in the present Covenant shall be interpreted as impairing the provisions of theCharter of the United Nations and of the constitutions of the specialized agencies whichdefine the respective responsibilities of the various organs of the United Nations and of thespecialized agencies in regard to the matters dealt with in the present Covenant.

第47條


  本公約之解釋,不得損害所有民族充分與自由享受及利用其天然財富與資源之天賦權利。

Article 47


  Nothing in the present Covenant shall be interpreted as impairing the inherent right of allpeoples to enjoy and utilize fully and freely their natural wealth and resources.

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第陸編

第48條


  一、本公約經由聯合國會員國或其專門機關會員國、國際法院規約當事國及經聯合國大會邀請為本公約締約國之任何其他國家簽署。
  二、本公約須經批准。批准書應送交聯合國秘書長存放。
  三、本公約聽由本條第一項所稱之任何國家加入。
  四、加入應以加入書交存聯合國秘書長為之。
  五、聯合國秘書長應將每一批准書或加入書之交存,通知已經簽署或加入本公約之所有國家。

PART VI

Article 48


  1.The present Covenant is open for signature by any State Member of the United Nationsor member of any of its specialized agencies, by any State Party to the Statute of theInternational Court of Justice, and by any other State which has been invited by theGeneral Assembly of the United Nations to become a Party to the present Covenant.
  2.The present Covenant is subject to ratification.Instruments of ratification shall bedeposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
  3.The present Covenant shall be open to accession by any State referred to in paragraph 1of this article.
  4.Accession shall be effected by the deposit of an instrument of accession with theSecretary-General of the United Nations.
  5.The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform all States which have signedthis Covenant or acceded to it of the deposit of each instrument of ratification or accession.

第49條


  一、本公約應自第三十五件批准書或加入書送交聯合國秘書長存放之日起三個月後發生效力。
  二、對於在第三十五件批准書或加入書交存後批准或加入本公約之國家,本公約應自該國交存批准書或加入書之日起三個月後發生效力。

Article 49


  1.The present Covenant shall enter into force three months after the date of the depositwith the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the thirty-fifth instrument ofratification or instrument of accession.
  2.For each State ratifying the present Covenant or acceding to it after the deposit of thethirty-fifth instrument of ratification or instrument of accession, the present Covenant shallenter into force three months after the date of the deposit of its own instrument ofratification or instrument of accession.

第50條


  本公約各項規定應一律適用於聯邦國家之全部領土,並無限制或例外。

Article 50

The provisions of the present Covenant shall extend to all parts of federal States withoutany limitations or exceptions.

第51條


  一、本公約締約國得提議修改本公約,將修正案提交聯合國秘書長。秘書長應將提議之修正案分送本公約各締約國,並請其通知是否贊成召開締約國會議,以審議並表決所提議案。如締約國三分之一以上贊成召開會議,秘書長應以聯合國名義召集之。經出席會議並投票之締約國過半數通過之修正案,應提請聯合國大會核可。
  二、修正案經聯合國大會核可,並經本公約締約國三分之二各依本國憲法程序接受後,即發生效力。
  三、修正案生效後,對接受此種修正之締約國具有拘束力;其他締約國仍受本公約原訂條款及其前此所接受修正案之拘束。

Article 51


  1.Any State Party to the present Covenant may propose an amendment and file it with theSecretary General of the United Nations.The Secretary-General of the United Nationsshall thereupon communicate any proposed amendments to the States Parties to the presentCovenant with a request that they notify him whether they favour a conference of StatesParties for the purpose of considering and voting upon the proposals.In the event that atleast one third of the States Parties favours such a conference, the Secretary-General shallconvene the conference under the auspices of the United Nations.Any amendment adoptedby a majority of the States Parties present and voting at the conference shall be submittedto the General Assembly of the United Nations for approval.
  2.Amendments shall come into force when they have been approved by the GeneralAssembly of the United Nations and accepted by a two-thirds majority of the States Partiesto the present Covenant in accordance with their respective constitutional processes.
  3.When amendments come into force, they shall be binding on those States Parties whichhave accepted them, other States Parties still being bound by the provisions of the presentCovenant and any earlier amendment which they have accepted.

第52條


  除第四十八條第五項規定之通知外,聯合國秘書長應將下列事項通知同條第一項所稱之所有國家:
  一、依第四十八條所為之簽署、批准及加入;
  二、依第四十九條本公約發生效力之日期,及依第五十一條任何修正案發生效力之日期。

Article 52


  Irrespective of the notifications made under article 48, paragraph 5, the Secretary-Generalof the United Nations shall inform all States referred to in paragraph 1 of the same articleof the following particulars:
  (a)Signatures, ratifications and accessions under article 48;
  (b)The date of the entry into force of the present Covenant under article 49 and the date ofthe entry into force of any amendments under article 51.

第53條


  一、本公約應交存聯合國檔庫,其中、英、法、俄及西文各本同一作準。
  二、聯合國秘書長應將本公約正式副本分送第四十八條所稱之所有國家。
  為此,下列各代表秉其本國政府正式授予之權,謹簽字於自一九六六年十二月十九日起得由各國在紐約簽署之本公約,以昭信守。

Article 53


  1.The present Covenant, of which the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish textsare equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the United Nations.
  2.The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall transmit certified copies of thepresent Covenant to all States referred to in article 48.IN FAITH WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized thereto by their respectiveGovernments, have signed the present Covenant, opened for signature at New York, on thenineteenth day of December, one thousand nine hundred and sixty-six.


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